Bahnlinien im HVV
style="color:white; background:#408040" Transport Authority Hamburger Verkehrsverbund
style="color:white; background:#408040" Number of lines 4 (+ 2 peak hour lines)
style="color:white; background:#408040" System length 144 km
style="color:white; background:#408040" Total no. of stations 68
style="color:white; background:#408040" No. of underground stations 11
style="color:white; background:#408040" No. of national railway stations 4
style="color:white; background:#408040" Rolling stock 472/473, BR 474/874
style="color:white; background:#408040" Power supply 1200 V DC third rail power supply. Overhead lines (15 kV, 16.7 Hz) for the extension to Stade

The Hamburg S-Bahn is a railway network for public rapid mass transit in the Hamburg Metropolitan Region. Together the S-Bahn, the Hamburg U-Bahn, the AKN railway and the regional railway form the backbone of railway public transport in the city and the surrounding area. The network has operated since 1907 as an electric rapid transit system, under the direction of the contemporary state railway company and is member of Hamburger Verkehrsverbund, Hamburg's transport association. On an average working day the S-Bahn transports about 590,000 passengers; in 2010 a total of about 221 million people used the S-Bahn.[1]

The Hamburg S-Bahn is the only rapid transit railway in Germany that uses both direct current (1,200 Volts) supplied by a third rail running parallel to the tracks and alternating current (15 kV / 16,7 Hz) supplied by conventional overhead lines. Most of the tracks are separated from other rail services. The Hamburg S-Bahn is operated by S-Bahn Hamburg GmbH, an independent subsidiary of DB Stadtverkehr.

Similar to Berlin and unlike Hanover the S-Bahn in Hamburg is an important part of public transport within the city of Hamburg due to its dense schedule and its good coverage of the city's metropolitan region. Unlike both Berlin and Hanover, the S-Bahn in Hamburg is of little importance for regional traffic, since the S-Bahn network lies mostly within the city boundaries though the S3 line in the southwest in 2003 was extended about 7 km into the state of Niedersachsen (the part Neugraben - Stade with two new stations).

== History ==
Map hamburg rail 1910

Railway and tramway map of Hamburg and Altona, about 1910.

=== 1906: Opening ===
On 5 December 1906, under the description Hamburg-Altonaer Stadt- und Vorortbahn the Prussian Eisenbahndirektion (railway division) of Altona opened a passenger transit using steam trains between the towns of Blankenese, Altona (Elbe) and Hamburg.

The Stadt- und Vorortbahn (City and Suburban railway) included the Altona-Blankenese line (Altona-Blankeneser Bahn, opened in 1867), the local tracks of the Hamburg-Altona link line (Verbindungsbahn, opened in 1866) and a new section to Ohlsdorf.

The Verbindungsbahn had been extended from one track to four and its level-crossings (i.e. with streets) eliminated between 1893 and 1903. The newly-built double-track line adjoining it was completed in the summer of 1906 after an 8-year construction period. It ran alongside the Lübeck–Hamburg line of the Lübeck-Büchen Railway Company as far as Hasselbrook and then on its own tracks as far as the then new Ohlsdorf cemetery. A new main cemetery with good transit connections was necessary in part due to the extension of the central railway lines, which had reduced the area of the existing and already strained cemeteries near the city's medieval fortifications.

=== 1907/08: First electric operation ===

Detail of part of a wall in Hamburg Hauptbahnhof: bolts used to attach a mast for the overhead power lines.

The line was electrified with overhead lines supplying alternating current with a voltage of 6.6 kV and frequency of 25 Hz. The electricity came from a coal-fired power station in Leverkusenstraße in Bahrenfeld, which also provided power to the Altona harbour railway.

The first electric trains ran on 1 October 1907, and from 29 January 1908 the entire line from Blankenese to Ohlsdorf was served exclusively by electric trains. These dates are considered the birthdates of the Hamburg S-Bahn.

The basic unit of an AC train consisted of two connected compartment carriages on six axles with motorised two-axle bogies under each cab front end and a Jacobs bogie in the middle, upon which both carriages were connected. The compartment carriages with doors on each side of the compartments took their design and functionality from the Prussian compartment carriages.

=== 1924: Network expansion along the Alster valley railway ===
A railway line, constructed and operated by a local company in 1914 and taken over by the district of Stormarn after bancruptcy, led from the city districts Ohlsdorf to Poppenbüttel in Prussia, with the goal of connecting neighbouring settlements along the Alster river. It was known as the Alster Valley Railway. The railway was opened in 1918 and originally served by petrol-powered trains. The district of Stormarn gave the line away to the German Imperial railway company, which electrified it and provided the extension of the Hamburg-Altona City and Suburban railway to Poppenbüttel in 1924.

=== 1934: Designation as an S-Bahn ===
The aptly short description S-Bahn was invented and used in Berlin from 1930, where a similar system of urban rapid transit on the City, Ring and Suburban lines had been operated since 1924. The term "S-Bahn" was used by the German Imperial railway to designate its Hamburg-Altona City and Suburban railway from 1934. The term was additionally used to describe non-electric services on lines within the local suburban tariff: the steam-powered lines from Blankenese to Wedel, from Altona to Elmshorn, from Hamburg to Friedrichsruh and to Harburg. Since 2002, the lines not served by S-Bahn rolling stock within the railway network around Hamburg were designated "Regional railway lines".

=== 1939/40: Moving to the DC system ===
Stromschiene Hamburger S-Bahn

Third rail on the Hamburg S-Bahn, here with a plastic cover

In the 1930s, after almost 30 years of service, the necessity to renew the trains and infrastructure of the Hamburg S-Bahn had become apparent. Since the DC system had proved itself over more than a decade with the Berlin S-Bahn, where the 750 volt DC power was supplied by a third rail next to the tracks, the German Imperial Railway decided to adopt the same system for Hamburg in 1937 and to abandon overhead AC lines. In order to allow improved acceleration, the Hamburg S-Bahn uses a 1200 volts system. As a consequence, the Berlin and Hamburg S-Bahn rolling stock are not compatible with each other. The first DC trains of the type ET 171 were delivered in 1939; daily service began in July 1940 alongside the existing AC trains. Due to the second world war and the post war years with its shortages, this mixed usage lasted until 1955.

The basic DC train unit consisted of three connected four-axle carriages, each with four sliding double doors per side. The middle carriages had upholstered seats for the second class, while the motorised end carriages had third-class wooden seats.

=== Network extensions from 1950 to 1965 ===
The DC S-Bahn system was extended along the single-track suburban line from Blankenese to Sülldorf in 1950 and further to Wedel in 1954. A section of the mainline railway between Hamburg and Berlin (which, due to the division of Germany, had very little traffic) between Haupbahnhof and Bergedorf, was added to the S-Bahn network in 1959 by the addition of a third rail to the tracks. This was the first section where S-Bahn and mainline trains (the number of the latter remained small until 1990) shared tracks. It was the second S-Bahn line, running from Bergedorf via Berliner Tor to Altona.
In 1962 a connecting curve was constructed, branching from the Verbindungsbahn at Holstenstraße station to the Altona-Kaltenkirchen railway, whose terminus was relocated to Langenfelde. The S-Bahn was extended in 1965 along the tracks of the AKN to Eidelstedt and from there along the mainline tracks towards Kiel as far as the station Elbgaustraße.

=== HVV and a line numbering system ===
Also in 1965, the German Railway, along with two local transport companies, founded the Hamburger Verkehrsverbund, a common tariff system for U-Bahn and bus lines. The S-Bahn joined in December 1966. From January 1967 on, the S-Bahn lines were designated S1S6 (see Network). Line designations with a leading letter "S" have since been adopted for other S-Bahn systems in the German-speaking world. Analogically, U-Bahn lines got the leading letter "U".

=== Network extension after 1967 ===
Hamburg U-Bahn Landungsbruecken 01 KMJ

S- & U-Bahn Station Landungsbrücken (left)

In the following years, further extensions were added: 1967 on separate tracks from Elbgaustraße to Pinneberg and 1969, this time on existing mainline tracks, from Bergedorf to Aumühle.

To ease the strain on the central Verbindungsbahn ("connection railway"), a second main connection was constructed, the City S-Bahn, which traverses the city centre of Hamburg in a tunnel. The first section was opened in 1975 between Hauptbahnhof and Landungsbrücken, the extension to Altona in 1979 and completed in 1981 with the final connection, above ground, to Diebsteich. 1983 saw the opening of the S-Bahn line via Wilhelmsburg to Harburg Rathaus. A long stretch of it runs along the existing mainline route. Through Hammerbrook the trains run on a concrete viaduct and in a tunnel under the centre of Harburg. The line was extended in 1984 along the Niederelbebahn to Neugraben.

The S-Bahn line to Bergedorf was placed on separate tracks due to increased traffic on the mainline tracks during the 1990s as a result of German reunification. For the same reason, S-Bahn service between Bergedorf and Aumühle was suspended for a short time in 1994. The section up to Reinbek was not reopened until 1997; completion up to Aumühle however was delayed until 2002 due to court challenges from local residents. In 1999, Allermöhe station (between Mittlerer Landweg and Nettelnburg) entered service in the new housing development of Neu-Allermöhe West.

Since December 2007, the S3 also serves stations between Neugraben and Stade.

The first ground-breaking for a 3.3 km long line from Ohlsdorf to the airport took place in 1991, the second in 2001; the line was opened on 11 December 2008 and has been fully operational since 12 December 2008. As required, northbound S1 trains are split at Ohlsdorf, the forward section branching off to serve the airport, while the rear section continues to Poppenbüttel.

== Operating company ==
The Hamburg S-Bahn is operated by S-Bahn Hamburg GmbH, an independent subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn AG. The company is directly answerable to DB Regio Nord and formed in 1997.

The S-Bahn as a mode of transport is represented in German cities with a logo consisting of a white "S" in a green circle. Only in Hamburg, the same logo with a red background had been used temporarily for a few years before November 2007.

The company currently employs approximately 1100 personnel in the driving, maintenance, train departure and resource management divisions. Another 300 employees are responsible for security and cleaning through subsidiaries.

== Lines Template:Anchor ==

EMUs of the S-Bahn on the Verbindungsbahn (left hand side) and on the tunnel ramp of the City S-Bahn (right hand side)

The route network of the Hamburg S-Bahn has a length of about 144 km and a total of 68 stations. It consists of two trunk routes crossing the city in an East-West-direction – the Northern Hamburg-Altona link line and the Southern City S-Bahn – and six connecting routes (two in the western part of the city and four in the eastern part). The trunk routes connect with eact other at Altona and Hauptbahnhof. 113.2 km of the network are separated from other rail services, 31.9 km are operated together with regional and cargo traffic. About 12.5 km of the network lie within tunnels, 7.9 km are single-track routes.

The S-Bahn operates four main (S1, S21, S3, S31) and two additional lines during peak hours (S11, S2). Lines with single-digit numbers go through the inner-city tunnel ("City-S-Bahn") via Jungfernstieg, lines with two-digit numbers use the Verbindungsbahn via Dammtor.

Until 2002, some Regionalbahn services were given S-Bahn numbers. The locomotive-hauled service between Hauptbahnhof and Ahrensburg was called S4 (now R10); the service between Altona and Elmshorn was S5 (now R60 and R70), and—before the extension of electric services to Aumühle in 1969—the service between Bergedorf and Friedrichsruh was S6 (now R20). The name S3 was used for Regionalbahn services between Hauptbahnhof and Maschen and Neugraben (now R30 and R50) until the opening of the Harburg S-Bahn in 1983/1984.

(Stations with name written in bold face in the following table offer a turning option)

== Projected extensions ==
Other plans, which are currently shelved, would have the S-Bahn network dramatically increased. S-Bahn trains would go as far as Kaltenkirchen (the private AKN Eisenbahn currently connects to Kaltenkirchen from Eidelstedt). An expansion plan which has been discussed for some time is the opening (or reopening) of a line S4. Plans for this have been around since the 1960s.
Whilst planning the City S-Bahn and network extensions of the 1960s, the German railway thought of building an S-Bahn line S4. This line should have left Altona in a north westerly direction towards Lurup. To the east of the city, the new line should have travelled with the current S1 and S11 to Hasselbrook and from there further to the northeast direction via Wandsbek to Ahrensburg along the existing regional train line R10. Only the eastern part of the line from Hauptbahnhof was implemented, and this was in form of a regional railway line, which was designated a S-Bahn line, since the HVV did not offer travel with regional railways at the time, but wanted its fare system to be valid on the line. Since September 2000, a popular initiave in Stormarn has been working for the improvement of the S4, today the R10. The initiave is currently basing their arguments on a feasibility study which was ordered by S-Bahn Hamburg GmbH in the year 2002, and in principle dusted off the plans from the 1960s. According to the study, the extension involves upgrading the line to proper S-Bahn standards, served by EMUs and the addition of extra stations. The first step would be the improvement of the line as far as Ahrensburg, with a further intended step being the continuation to Bad Oldesloe. Dual-system trains would be necessary for the new line like those used on the extension to Stade. A third rail would be built as far as Ahrensburg, from where the trains would use the existing tracks with overhead lines. Despite a large amount of interest from the areas of Hamburg surrounding the proposed route, as well as neighbouring communities and the positive feasibility study, the Hamburg city council has yet to take any steps to put the realisation of this proposal into action. == Rolling stock ==
S-Bahn Hamburg Type 474 1

A class 474 train at Hauptbahnhof

The Hamburg S-Bahn uses three-car electrical multiple units (EMUs). They are driven by direct current supplied via third rail. The rolling stock consists of 447 vehicles of the following types:
* Type 470, built from 1959 until 1970, in service until 2002 (central carriage of type 870)
* Type 471, built from 1939 until 1958, in service until 2001 (central carriage of type 871)
* Type 472, built from 1974 until 1984 (central carriage of type 473)
* Type 474, built from 1996 (central carriage of type 874)

Single three-carriage trains are designated short trains in service. Several units can be combined to form a so-called full train with six carriages or a long train with nine carriages.

Until 2001, Hamburg's S-Bahn system used to be one of very few suburban railway systems to offer two classes of service. A quieter and cushier first class was available to passengers willing to pay a 50% supplement on the traditional (2nd) class fare.

Of the different train types, only type 472 and type 474 trains are found in current regular service. The last remaining type 470 and type 471 trains were permanently removed from service in 2002 and 2001 respectively. The new type 474 trains primarily serve the lines S1, S11, S3 and S31, whereas type 472 trains are generally used for lines S2 and S21.

With the extension of the S-Bahn network to Stade, new dual-system trains have been deployed. These are identical to the type 474 units, with an additional pantograph on top of the central carriage to collect 15 kV alternate current from overhead lines.

With the introduction of type 474 trains, the colour scheme of beige and marine blue, which had been used previously on Hamburg's S-Bahn, has been replaced by a colour called "Transport Red" (RAL 3020). External advertising covering the entire bodies of trains was also abandoned at this time.

The implementation of a consistent corporate design led to type 472 trains also being updated with the new colour scheme. This has left the Berlin S-Bahn as the only German S-Bahn train types with an individual design.

Type 474 trains were initially provided with the very same colour scheme as the type DT4 trains of the Hamburg U-Bahn (white, grey, red). This early experiment was quickly given up, and all of Hamburg's S-Bahn trains now appear in the shiny "Transport Red".

== Stations ==

Platform at Rothenburgsort station


The Hamburg S-Bahn network currently includes 68 stations, of which ten are fully underground. These are the five stations along the so-called City-S-Bahn (Jungfernstieg, Stadthausbrücke, Landungsbrücken, Reeperbahn and Königstraße), the S-Bahn area of Altona station, the three stations in the centre of Harburg (Harburg, Harburg Rathaus and Heimfeld) and the one at Hamburg Airport. At the Hauptbahnhof (Hamburg Central Station), the platforms heading west are also located in a tunnel.

Most stations of the S-Bahn network consist of a single island platform. At the interchange stations Hauptbahnhof and Altona there are two island platforms: one for trains heading to the city centre and one for the other direction. At the terminal stations Neugraben and Pinneberg the two S-Bahn tracks are located between a side platform and an island platform, on the other side of which regional rail trains stop. Side platforms can also be found at the triple-track stations Bergedorf, Berliner Tor (lower level), Blankenese and Harburg Rathaus, the twin-track station Billwerder-Moorfleet and at the only single-track station, Iserbrook.

All stations have electronic passenger information systems, which inform passengers about the line, destination route, length and stopping position of the next train, missed connections and temporary disturbances to service.

Some stations, for example Landungsbrücken and Harburg Rathaus, are designed as civilian shelters. Observant passengers may notice the heavy protective entrance doors as the only sign of this dual use.

== Service time and intervals ==
Trains run daily from about 04:30 to 01:00. There is an all night service within the Hamburg section of the system during the nights before Saturdays, Sundays, and the public holidays in Germany.

The base frequency for lines S1, S21, S3 and S31 during the day is 10 minutes. Before 06:00, after 23:00 and during weekend night service, the frequency is 20 minutes. Multiple lines running on the same tracks, mainly through the city centre but also along the routes served by the S2/S21 and the S3/S31, cause shorter intervals. Peak-time lines S2 und S11 further decrease intervals in the morning and afternoon.

== See also ==
* Hamburg U-Bahn

* AKN Eisenbahn
* List of rapid transit systems

== References ==
  1. Hamburger Abendblatt (ed.): Fazit 2010: S-Bahn kommt pünktlicher ans Ziel. In: Hamburger Abendblatt from January 6th, 2011. URL: (in German) Download: January 6th, 2011

== Literature ==
* Erich Staisch: Die Hamburger S-Bahn. Chronik eines modernen Verkehrsmittels., Hamburg 1984, ISBN 3-455-08874-0 (German)
* Erich Staisch (Hrsg.): Die Hamburger S-Bahn. Geschichte und Zukunft., Hamburg 1996, ISBN 3-89234-694-1 (German)
* Wolfgang Pischek, Jan Borchers, Martin Heimann: Die Hamburger S-Bahn. Mit Gleichstrom durch die Hansestadt., Munich 2002, ISBN 3-7654-7191-7 (German)
* Michael Braun: "Hamburg lernt von Berlin. Punktsieg für Gleichstrom", in: LOK MAGAZIN Nr. 259, Munich 2003, p. 68-77, ISSN 0458-1822 (German)

== External links ==

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