The Berlin tram is one of the oldest and currently (as of 2010) the third largest streetcar network in the world. The operator was established in 1929 Berlin transport authority (BVG) is. The standard gauge-owned network has a Length of 189.4 kilometers and 377 stations. 22 lines ride the route network of around 300 kilometers. 2009 carried 166.7 million passengers, the Berlin tram. 
In Berlin since 1865 drove a horse car. By the end of the 19th Century, the network was converted to electric operation. With the division of the city's public transport has been split into a western and an eastern operations, which were reunited 1992nd Until 1967, all tram lines were shut down in West Berlin. With two exceptions built after the reunification of the tram lines runs today, therefore, only in the eastern part of the city.
From horse bus to BVG Edit
On 1 January 1847 Berlin's first horse-drawn carriage line was opened. By 1864 the number of bus companies grew to 36
On 22 June 1865 took the Berlin Horse Railway Company E. Besckow in Berlin the first German horse car on line operation. She led by Brandenburg Gate on the current Street of June 17 for [[Berlin-Charlottenburg |] Charlottenburg]. It was on August 28 on the Dorotheenstraße by Kupfergraben at today's Museum Island extended. The terminal is still in operation.
On May 16 Opened in 1881 in the then municipality of United-Lichterfelde Werner von Siemens the first electric tram in the world.
The electrification of the tramway lines began at the end of the century. The first regularly scheduled run in the city was taken by Siemens & Halske in operation. This was in service from September 10, 1895 between the corner of Prince Avenue / Badstraße in Gesundbrunnen and Breite Straße in Pankow. Until 1902 almost all the lines were electrically operated.
The tram in Berlin run by a variety of companies. In addition to private companies by acquisitions, M and bankruptcy changed frequently, had Berlin and some of that time still independent today's districts, at least temporarily own municipal street railway companies.
The main private operator was the Great Berlin horse railroad, which was called after the beginning of the electrification Great Berlin tram (GBS) and bought up almost all other companies. On 13 December 1920 the company merged with the GBS established member of society and SSB on the Berlin tram.
Due to inflation were on September 8, 1923 set all Berlin tram lines. The next day drove to Berlin tram no. On 10 September 1923, the traffic was on a network with 32 trunk lines resumed and expanded in subsequent years.
On 1 January 1929, the Berlin tram to the newly established urban Berliner Verkehrs-AG ( public transport) was transferred. The BVG also took over the building and underground railways, and the majority of the [General [Berliner Omnibus AG | General Berliner Omnibus-joint-stock company]] (ABOAG) bus routes.
At the founding of the BVG ran this 89 tram lines and a network with 634 km Length, 4000 had trams and employed 14 400 people alone in the tram. The tram of 170 million vehicles miles per year and carried 929 million passengers in 1929. End of 1929 there were 93 tram lines.
By Aerial attacks of the Second World War, human resources and lack of power, the performance of the tram as of March 1943 went back further and further until the operation April 23, 1945 completely broke down. Despite immense destruction went on 20 May 1945 trams in Berlin's outskirts. By the end of 1945 was 328 km light rail route be reopened.
The tram in the divided city Edit
The LPP was in consequence of the political division of Berlin on 1 August 1949 split. There were two separate companies, theWestLPP in the three western sectors (36 trams) and theBVG-Ost(13 lines) in the Soviet sector, from 1969VEB Kombinat Berlin public transport( BVB). On 14 October 1950 was the traffic on the tram lines from West Berlin to the Brandenburg and several surrounding areas (after Kleinmachnow and Schoenefeld), 15 January 1953 that regular services on the urban sector boundary set.
From 1954 it was in West Berlin a change in transport policy, which aimed to replace the tram traffic by expanding the subway and bus routes. The tram was seen as outdated and unnecessary, because Berlin at that time already had a good basic U-Bahn network. From 1954 the trams were gradually replaced by buses and in some cases by the in the following decades lavishly extended underground. At the end of 1962, in West Berlin for 18 tram lines.
On 2 October 1967 went to the last time a tram in West Berlin: the last line with the number 55, dated Zoo Station on the Ernst-Reuter-Platz - Town Hall Charlottenburg - S-Jungfernheide - Siemensdamm - Nonnendammallee - Falkenseer Court - Neuendorfer avenue to Spandau, drove Hakenfelde, was shut down. In 1984, this section of line with the expansion of the subway line 7 again operated on rails.
Today, many Metrobus lines follow the shape of former tram lines. Italic'Today's lines correspond completely or largely the outcome of the tram at the time of decommissioning.
In East Berlin were obtained for the more and more in-depth division of the city major problems with the maintenance of working in East Berlin's public transport trams. The main workshop tram was in the West Berlin Embankment. From 1954, the RAW Schöneweide the maintenance and repair tasks. This was the railroad repair shop responsible for both the S-Bahn and U-Bahn and trams.
For transport policy in East Berlin, Moscow was using its broad, open highways tram model. Consequently, were also closed down as part of the car-oriented transportation planning in the 1950s and 1960s, numerous tram routes. In 1967, with completion of new construction on the Ben, the lines through the center of East Berlin closed down.
To a complete abandonment of the tram network was not intended. In the late 1970s were built new tram lines to the new housing estate s like Marzahn, then Hohenschönhausen and finally Hellersdorf tapped.
The development after the reunification Edit
In 1992, BVG (west) and Dortmund (east) reunited for the BVG, the company now called Berlin public transport. In addition to bus and subway lines operated the new LPP also circulating only in the eastern districts of the tram.
There were considerations for Pankow shut down traffic by road on railway lines, on the one hand, the trams in the Schönhauser Allee with the [[Metro Line 2 (Berlin) | U-Bahn U 2] ] go and also the Streckenast for [[Berlin-Rosenthal | Rosenthal] was not busy]. However, this was not to enforce, and so presented soon after the senator for transport Herwig Haase plans for the reactivation of the tram in the western districts.
In 1995, the first stretch of the road in two stages Bornholm to the west was opened. The Rudolf-Virchow-Klinikum, and the underground stations Seestraße in Wedding and Oslo Road in Gesundbrunnen are located, since then reconnected to the tram network.
Since 1997, the tram stops right at the Friedrichstrasse station. Earlier, a long walk back down was to arrive at the same time in the renovated train station. Since then, the tram stop in the turning loop "on the copper trench" near the Humboldt University and the Museum Island.
The following year, the reopening of the tram was on Alexanderplatz. This now moves directly from the junction corner minor Otto-Braun-Strasse coming across the square and holds both at the underground station of U 2 as the station building of regional and commuter trains, where a direct transition to the U 5 and U is 8. The increase of people feared by critics of tram accidents in the pedestrian zone has not occurred.
In 2000, the streetcar tracks were extended from the current terminus at the Tallinn road through the S-Bahnhof Warsaw street right up to the same named train station. Since there was no room for a turning loop, a blunt-ending track was set up. For bi-directional vehicles have been procured. The tracks which were laid in 1995 at the Oberbaumbrücke remain, however, more unused, as an extension of the tram to Hermann Square is the first long-term planning.
Since the same year, the tram runs in Pankow on the current terminus French beechwood church continues to Guyotstraße, bringing the local development areas were connected to the network.
2006, the second route in the western part of the city was opened, the line M 10 moves since its former terminus Eberswalder road through the Bernauer Strasse in Gesundbrunnen on to North Station in the middle.
In May 2007 a new line of Prenzlauer Tor on the Karl-Liebknecht-Straße Alexanderplatz was put into operation, where the line M 2 directly at the end suburban and regional train station, rather than being on the Rosa-Luxembourg-Platz Hackescher market operate. The previous track in the Old and Neue Schönhauser Strasse is not operated in regular service, but received only a service track.
Since the redesign of the route network to 12 December 2004 in Berlin, 22 tram lines. The network is divided into nine MetroTram and 13 tram lines. metro tram-lines, together with MetroBus lines, the metro network. This is a ride in addition to the S-and U-Bahn network-positioned network of trams and buses, the major axes that are not served by the S-and U-Bahn. metro tram lines run daily usually 24 hours, seven days a week and during at least the 10-minute intervals at night at least every 30 minutes, although some lines on a shortened route. The other tram lines serve mainly the border areas of the city and operate mostly in the 20-minute intervals up to 1:00 clock at night.
In the metro tram-lines are also the numbering information about where the track is about. Shall bear the lines that run in a star shape on the city center, a one-digit number that rises in a clockwise direction. The M1 runs from the city center via, for example, Schönhauser Allee in the north. The M8 runs from the city center by Landsberger Allee and Avenue of the cosmonauts to the east. The metro trams with two-digit numbers are tangent lines corresponding to the number rises, the further they are away from the city center. The M10 is used for example as a cross-connection of the neighborhoods within the S-Bahn ring, while the M17 connects the large housing estates in suburban location. Also reversed before the introduction of the metro network several tram lines with 50 numbers in the district of Pankow, after 2004 was only left as a normal line 50 tram line. Even today, however, all tram lines with 60 numbers in the district of Köpenick.
| Line||History|| |
Length (km) </ small>
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||Centre, by a copper pit - U Eberswalde Street - S + U Pankow - Niederschönhausen, Schiller Streetor Rosenthal North||12.4||39|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||S + U Alexanderplatz / Dircksenstraße - Prenzlauer Allee - Am Steinberg - Heinersdorf||6.5||18|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||S Hackescher Market - U Alexanderplatz - S Greifswalder Str - Prerower Court - Falkenbergor Hohenschönhausen, Zingster road ' '||11.4||29|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||S Hackescher Markt - U Alexanderplatz - S Landsberger Allee - High Schönhauser Str - Prerower Court - Hohenschönhausen Zingster Street||12.6||27|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||U Schwartzkopffstraße- Landsberger Allee / St. Petersburg - High Schönhauser Str - Hellersdorf, Riesaer Street||21.5||47|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||Schwartzkopffstraße U - U Rosenthaler Platz- Landsberger Allee / St. Petersburg - Avenue of the Cosmonauts - Ahrensfelde||19.2||38|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||S North Station - [Station [Berlin Warschauer Strasse | S + U Warschauer Straße]] - U Eberswalde Street - Prenzlauer Allee - Landsberger Allee / St. Petersburg||7.8||20|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||Wedding, Virchow-Klinikum - S Bornholm Street - Prenzlauer Allee / Ostseestr. - High Schönhauser Str - Warschauer Strasse||17.1||39|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||'Falkenberg - Gehrenseestr. - Landsberger Allee / Rhinstr. - Avenue of the Cosmonauts - S Karl Horst - S Schöneweide||15.5||32|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||Mitte, Am Kupfergraben - North Station S - U Eberswalde Street - Prenzlauer Allee / Ostseestr. - Weißensee, Pasedagplatz||10.7||28|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||S + U Frankfurter Allee - High Schönhauser Str - Landsberger Allee / Rhinstr. - Ahrensfelde||13.0||25|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||S + U Lichtenberg / Gudrunstr - Avenue of the Cosmonauts - Landsberger Allee / Blum Damm - Hellersdorf Riesaer st||13.6||32|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||S + U Lichtenberg / Gudrunstr - U Frankfurter Tor - Rummelsburg S - S Schöneweide||16.5||41|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||Hospital Köpenick - Avenue of the Cosmonauts - Landsberger Allee / Rhinstr. - Weissensee, Pasedagplatz||20.7||45|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||Depot Lichtenberg - Avenue of the Cosmonauts - Karl Horst S - S Schöneweide||11.3||23|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||Wedding, Virchow-Klinikum - Prenzlauer Berg, Björnsonstr. - S + U Pankow - French Buchholz, Guyotstr.||14.4||32|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||S Adlershof - Köpenick Rathaus - Marktplatz Friedrichshagen - Friedrich Hagen, old water works||10.4||25|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||S Adlershof - City Hall Köpenick - Marketplace Friedrichshagen - Rahnsdorf, Waldschänke||13.6||28|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||Wendenschloss - Rathaus Köpenick - Köpenick S - S Mahlsdorf||12.2||31|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||S Köpenick - S Schöneweide - Locust Valley, Haeckelstr.||8.9||23|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||Hospital Köpenick - Köpenick Rathaus - S Schöneweide||8.1||19|
|Template:SortKey Template:PT Berlin||S Köpenick - Köpenick Rathaus - S Grünau - Alt- Schmöckwitz||14.5||27|
Notes: =Italicon the metro in this section no night traffic
The 189.4 km long railway network is divided into three sections. The biggest part is the core network, which extends from the district center star shape on the north eastern areas. It is complemented by three large tangent, the two inner lines (M10, M13) are part of the ring roads of the Hobrecht-plan s. The outer Tangentialstrecke (M17) was born in the 1970s and 1980s and consists of the street Rhinstraße / At the zoo / Treskowallee.
The Pankow subnet in the north is served by the lines M1 and 50 and was originally connected by streets lined with the main network. The network was part of character from the division of Berlin, because since then only there is a direct access. The line M1 runs radially to the center of town's, line 50 acts as a tangential line to the amplifier and Wedding. The only way to feed Pankow runs on Schönhauser Allee.
The Köpenick subnet in the Southeast was at first as an independent network, centered in the Köpenick old town. Later on Oberschöneweide built starting a connection. A second connection of the branch line to Mahlsdorf for new housing development in Heller village is planned long term. In contrast to Pankow subnet runs most of the lines within Köpenick, a radial line to the city center no longer since 1969. Almost all of this traffic lines have a 60 number.
The network is almost fully extended double track, only in the sub-networks of Köpenick and Pankow, there still single-track sections:
- Rosenthal between North and Pastor-Niemöller-Platz (M 1)
- Between Northrend and Schiller Street (M 1)
- Between Heiner village water tower and Heinersdorf, terminal (M 2)
- Between Müggelseedamm / Bölschestraße and the old water plant (60)
- Between S Adlershof Adlershof and the market place (60, 61)
- Mahlsdorf between South and S Mahlsdorf (62)
There are also two network segments that are configured as Gleisverschlingung and can therefore be driven on only one track:
- On the evil Bridge ( S-Bahn station Bornholm Street) (M13, 50)
- In the Karlhorsterstrasse below the train bridge between the S-train stations Ostkreuz, Rummelsburg and Nöldnerplatz (21)
By the year 2000, all terminals in the network were equipped with a balloon loop. The last Stumpfendstelle - 1993 by the closure of the route to Altglienicke were provisionally - was in 1995 in Adlershof has been eliminated. Only the extension of the currentM10for S + U-Bahnhof Warschauer Strasse made the construction of a Stumpfendstelle necessary because the space for a loop was not present and also at that time was provided for the quick further Hermannplatz. Opened in 2006 at the temporary terminus M10'SisNorth Station is also such a terminal.
Finally ends, a new trackM2 route to the S-Bahnhof Alexanderplatz blunt / Dircksenstraße, where the trains will start and end of theM2. The other track, along with the associated platform is not currently used in regular service and is a leader in a northeasterly direction with the curve leading to the Alexanderplatz line (outbound) attached.
Apart from the above, there are other terminals in the network that are used in part (representeditalics) of insertion.
- S-Bahnhof Adlershof (turning triangle due to blocking the underpass Rudower Straße (60,61)
- Altstadt Köpenick (tentative, Old Town Bypass)
- Biesdorf (now known as Avenue of the Cosmonauts / Poelchaustraße)
- Friedrichshain, Bersarinplatz (provisional place avoidance)
- Friedrichshain, Langenbeck street ('M5, M6'''M8)
- S-Bahn station Grünau (68E)
- Heinersdorf, by Steinberg (M2)
- Hohenschönhausen, Degner Street
- Hohenschönhausen Gehren Seestraße (M17)
- Karl Horst, Blockdammweg
- Mahlsdorf-South (62E)
- S-Bahn station Marzahn (M6)
- Marzahn, Wuhletalstraße
Prenzlauer Berg, Björnsonstraße (50)
- Prenzlauer Berg, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark
- Prenzlauer Berg, Kniprodestraße
- Weißensee, Hansa Road
The Berlin transport maintain five operating farms and a track camp. LOB internally designated the facilities as part of the business.
- Depot Marzahn
The depot Marzahn (Mar) is the newest and largest depot of the tram. He is on the Landsberger Allee on the border with Hellersdorf. The plant was necessary, produced as in the 1980s, the lines in the new housing areas in Marzahn, Hohenschönhausen and Hellersdorf. The work lasted from April 1981 to December 1988, the first vehicles could be accommodated starting April 1985. The depot includes a 25-track open-air parking area, a repair hall with ten tracks, a Bremsprüfgleis and several halls for machinery and equipment to repair vehicles. In addition, located at the entrance to the site a three-pronged turning loop for insertion. The capacity is about 300 vehicles of the type Tatra KT4D with a length of 19 meters.
- Depot Weißensee
The depot Weissensee (Wei) at the Bernkasteler street near Berliner Allee in 1912 opened as the station22the Great Berlin tram (GBS). The main hall could accommodate 200 cars with 11 meters in length. In 1976 the site was expanded to include a elfgleisige outdoor parking area. The extension was necessary because the new type cars Tatra KT4D should be stationed here. The depot now houses the primary vehicles of the lines in the district of Pankow.
- Depot in Lichtenberg
The depot in Lichtenberg (Lich) in 1913 passed as24station of GBS to traffic. He was at the time of commissioning of the world's largest street railway station. The two main halls bordered a total of 540 vehicles with a length of up to 11 meters. Later the area was expanded to a bus depot. The three 1951-1973 border traffic in East Berlin O-bus were based here. Besides the two main halls full of 26 tracks for maintenance and repair work, the depot also has a 25-track open-air parking area and a double-track train shed for work vehicles. The latter were added in the expansion of the facilities in 1977 and located north of the bus station, which is surrounded by the tracks almost.
- Depot Niederschönhausen
The depot Niederschönhausen (Never) was opened on 26 May 1901 and is located near the bus stop at the Dietzgenstrasse Northrend. The Court now serves primarily the placement of historic vehicles.
- Depot Nalepastraße
The depot Nalepastraße (Na) in Oberschöneweide was taken as the depot of the Berlin Eastern Railway in 1901 in operation, following the takeover by the GBS, he was listed asthe station 15. In addition to the trams operated the Eastern Railway and the Rail Freight Berlin-Köpenick by depot Rummelsburg from delivery in coming over the Nalepastraße the industries in Oberschöneweide. As the cars initially from Bulls were drawn, quickly became established on the nickname "Bull car" field. The term was later also used for electric locomotives of the operation, either as "Big Bull" (four axles) or "Little Bull" (biaxial). The vehicles were put together on the farm. This consists of two eight tracks car-making halls and a five-track open-air parking area. The depot is now used almost exclusively for the parking of junked trains of the type Tatra T6A2D. The farm is run along with the depot as an operating Köpenicker South East. Meanwhile, the depot had to be reactivated, as was closed because of accidents in the Altstadt Köpenick in 2007 and 2008, the depot from Köpenick network is almost complete.
- Depot Köpenick
The depot Köpenick (body) in the fall of Castle Street was opened with the first electric tram line Köpenicker (now the line62) in 1903. Later he joined the station26for GBS. The Court consists of three halls with a total of 18 car tracks and a four-track open-air parking area. It is also the only depot in the grounds is not a loop track, so that the trains have to return to the turn of Castle Street.
In the 1970s, the depot was closed and this new one on the road at the Wuhlheide arise, since there was plenty of room for expansion. The plans were abandoned when the construction of new residential areas in Marzahn and village Heller was decided, and thus the shift of the supply line was in sight.
- Track stock Kniprodestraße
The track bearing Kniprodestraße is adjacent to the track loop in the Prenzlauer Berg and is a former depot of the SSB (trams the city of Berlin), which existed from 1908 to 1923. Because line consolidations within the Association of Berlin street railway companies, he was in 1923 to track the Berlin tram yard (BST) under the roof to the Association for BVG in 1929. The Second World War the area was partially damaged, but remained in a comprehensive rehabilitation in the following years, so you can see from the actual depot hardly anything. Today the site serves as a storage track and as a depot for local labor used railcars.
Currently under construction is the two-kilometer route from S-Bahn station Adlershof on the Rudower Chaussee to the Max-Born-Strasse in the science city Adlershof.
Originally, the connection should be completed in 1999.  [Planning procedures] That was completed in 2002. Just before the planning decision would become invalid after five years, the project was on 9 August 2007 and shortly thereafter agreed to set up first poles for the overhead line. The route is expected in 2011  The SNB expects the new tram line 9000 passengers a day 
Plans for new lines Edit
- 2013 to be a tram route through the Invalidenstraße opens to Central Station. Actually, the route to go into operation in 2002. The original plan but was criticized by the Administrative Court and therefore discontinued in 2004 and revised  Under the new plans, the Federal Ministry of Transport to about 50 meters a two-meter wide strip of garden to the Land Berlin cede to have enough space for all road users.  The new plan approval process was completed in February 2010 . 2011 start of construction work and completed after two years. However, some residents announced plans to appeal against the planning decision, which could further delay the construction work. 
- By the year 2015, the line 21 closer to the station Ostkreuz be brought up when started its reconstruction. Today, the tram runs in an arc northeast over the Ostkreuz, a transfer is possible only with long paths. The tram stop is on the north side of the station and are managed using the Sunday Road on the existing road section in the Wühlischstraße. There is a tray laying, as the range market street / is street Boxhagener abandoned. The Berlin Fahrgastverband IGEB criticized this decision, as the Record at 21 only in the Boxhagener a tram road worthy utilization. The intended closure of the LPP of the 21 matches with the Senate plans do not coincide. The route would cost about 19 million €.
- From Alexanderplatz to a distance by the Leipziger Straße lead to Potsdamer Platz to the Cultural Forum. Already in 2000 this track was laid in the Leipziger Strasse. At that time, protested the resident Federal and [[Daimler AG |] DaimlerChrysler Group] against the tram. Both feared serious traffic problems on the heavily used road. Originally, the construction work should begin in 2008 Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag.
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